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कम बोलने वाले लोगों की आठ खूबियां क्या हैं?

1. ऐसे लोग बहुत ही ज्यादा समझदार होते हैं क्योंकि यह लोग केवल उतनी ही बात बोलते हैं जितनी की आवश्यकता है 2. आप ऐसे लोगों से अपनी राज की बात भी कर सकते हैं क्योंकि यह लोग किसी को कोई बात नहीं बताते। 3. ऐसे लोगों को समझना थोड़ा कठिन होता है पर यह लोग दिल के काफी ज्यादा अच्छे और सच्चे होते हैं। 4. ऐसे लोग अपने जीवन का बहुत बड़ा समय केवल अपने लक्ष्य की ओर ही लगा देते हैं। 5. कम बोलने वाले लोग ज्यादा सफल होते हैं क्योंकि इनके आसपास डिस्ट्रक्शन( ध्यान भटकाने वाले लोग) कम होती है। 6. कम बोलने वाले लोगों के अपने परिवार के साथ संबंध बहुत अच्छे होते हैं। 7. कम बोलने वाले लोगों की एक बहुत अच्छी बात यह है कि वह केवल सच ही बोलते हैं। 8. कम बोलने वाले लोग अपने दोस्त कम बनाते हैं परंतु जितने भी बनाते हैं सच्चे बनाते हैं Source: Sumit Gautam

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Syllabus For Gate Biotechnology



Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT)




ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.

Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations,Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.


BIOTECHNOLOGY

Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.
Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes.
Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.

Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.

Plant and Animal Biotechnology: Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.
Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.

Immunology: The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields).

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